中国的电视管制

由"无边界记者组织"发布的2003年度《世界新闻自由报告》将中国排在全部166个国家的中的第161位,大致位于伊朗和北朝鲜之间。但至少中国现在的电视银屏上已不再有毛泽东时代那些一本正经的情节剧和笨拙的说教式节目了。不经意的观察者会发现在如今中国的电视节目中,性、犯罪、毒品、暴力和老套的游戏节目已是稀松平常,并可能由此得到中国的电视节目内容已经摆脱桎梏的印象。

然而,如果我们将注意力集中在直白的政治性内容上,这种印象就不复存在了。与党的原则稍有背离的观点也仍然不会出现在电视上。尽管电视节目在表面上已呈多元化,但对政治话语的控制从上世纪50年代以来就几乎没有改观。

但中国电视节目的巨大播出量使这种控制变得困难。仅中国中央电视台(CCTV)一家就拥有12个频道(许多频道全天24小时播放节目)和近3000名雇员。CCTV受中央宣传部和广播电影电视部管辖。众多的省、市级电视台也按规定转播CCTV的某些节目。这种联播方式代表着一项艰巨的行政任务。由于电视节目的需求量如此巨大,使得对电视节目内容的监控必须有最高的效率。

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