Paul Lachine

O que é Necessário na Política Externa

CAMBRIDGE – Alguns críticos reclamam que o Presidente dos EUA Barack Obama baseou a sua campanha numa retórica inspiradora e numa ambição de “dobrar o arco da história,” mas depois revelou ser um líder transaccional e pragmático uma vez no governo. Neste aspecto, contudo, Obama dificilmente é único.

Muitos líderes mudam os seus objectivos e estilo ao longo das suas carreiras. Um dos grandes líderes transformacionais da história, Otto von Bismarck, tornou-se sobretudo incremental e orientado para o status quo, depois de conseguir a unificação da Alemanha sob a direcção Prussiana. Do mesmo modo, os objectivos e o estilo da política externa de Franklin Delano Roosevelt foram modestos e incrementais no seu primeiro mandato presidencial, mas tornaram-se transformacionais em 1938 quando decidiu que Adolfo Hitler constituía uma ameaça existencial.

A liderança transaccional é mais eficaz em ambientes estáveis e previsíveis, enquanto um estilo inspirador aparecerá mais provavelmente em períodos de rápida e descontínua mudança social e política. Os objectivos transformacionais e o estilo inspirador de um líder como Mahatma Gandhi na Índia ou Nelson Mandela na África do Sul podem influenciar significativamente os resultados em contextos políticos fluidos, especialmente em países em desenvolvimento com restrições institucionais fracamente estruturadas.

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