Paul Lachine

Die Grundlagen erfolgreicher Außenpolitik

CAMBRIDGE – Einige Kritiker beschweren sich darüber, dass US-Präsident Barack Obama seine Kampagne mit inspirierender Rhetorik und der Absicht, “den Bogen der Geschichte zu biegen” geführt hatte und sich dann im Amt als transaktionaler und pragmatischer Staatsführer erwies. In dieser Beziehung ist Obama aber wohl kaum ein Einzelfall.

Im Laufe ihrer Karriere ändern viele Führungspersönlichkeiten ihre Ziele oder ihren Stil. Einer der größten transformativen Führer der Geschichte, Otto von Bismarck, wurde, nachdem er die Vereinigung von Deutschland unter preußischer Leitung erreicht hatte, inkrementell und Status-Quo-orientiert. Auch in Franklin Delano Roosevelts erster Amtszeit als Präsident waren dessen außenpolitische Ziele und sein Stil gemäßigt und inkrementell, aber sie wurden 1938, als er Adolf Hitler als existenzielle Bedrohung erkannte, transformativ.

Transaktionale Führung ist in stabilen und vorhersagbaren Umgebungen effektiver, während ein inspirierender Stil eher unter schnellen und abrupten sozialen und politischen Veränderungen auftritt. Die transformativen Ziele und der inspirierende Stil von Politikern wie Mahatma Gandhi in Indien oder Nelson Mandela in Südafrika können die Entwicklungen in unsicheren politischen Umfeldern stark beeinflussen, insbesondere in Entwicklungsländern mit nur schwach strukturierten institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen.

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