Bike sharing community Martin Tod/Flickr

创造性自我破坏

拉古娜海滩—和许多读者一样,我还能生动地回忆起诺基亚主宰手机市场、占据40%以上份额,而苹果还只是电脑公司的日子。我记得亚马逊还只是知名书店、肮脏的的士或高价豪华轿车还是公共交通或自驾车的唯一替代方案的日子。我也记得四季、丽兹卡尔顿、圣瑞吉斯等酒店彼此竞争——而不是和Airbnb竞争——的日子。

现在,我也许已经老了,但我还没有那么老。这些变化最近才发生——很快地发生。它们是如何发生的?变化的节奏会保持如此快速——甚或还会加速吗?小公司应该如何应对?

一个行业可以通过自上而下的经济、金融、政治和监管变化而改变。但Airbnb、亚马逊、苹果和Uber等公司说明了一种不同类型的改变:敏捷的玩家入侵其他看起来无关的行业,大肆利用并前所未见的巨大机会。一个重要并且反直觉的特点是,这样做有利于它们自身的核心竞争力,而不利于它们寻求颠覆的行业的核心竞争力。

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