Dean Rohrer

Réalisme constitutionnel au Kenya

NAIROBI – Enfin le Kenya se pourvoit d’une nouvelle constitution, un instrument qui avait échappé à notre pays depuis des décennies, même si presque tout le monde était conscient de la nécessité d’en avoir une. Que le referendum sur la nouvelle constitution se soit déroulé aussi pacifiquement – à peine quelques années après que le pays se soit déchiré dans une élection présidentielle violement disputée – mérite aussi une célébration. En refusant la violence, les Kenyans ont démontré avec force que nous sommes capables de régler nos désaccords de manière pacifique.

Le processus d’obtention d’une nouvelle constitution par le Kenya fut long et douloureux. Lorsque le président Mwai Kibaki s’était présenté une première fois aux élections en 2002, il avait promis qu’en cas de victoire, son gouvernement délivrerait une constitution dans les 100 jours qui suivraient sa prise de fonction. Dirigée par Yash Pal Ghai, avocat kenyan réputé, à qui l’on doit, entre autre, une large contribution à la rédaction de la constitution de l’Afghanistan, la Conférence pour la Constitution nationale kényane avait donc débuté.

Mais au bout de 100 jours, il n’y a eu pas de nouvelle constitution. Ni 200 jours plus tard. Les jours se transformèrent en mois, et les mois en années. En 2004, le processus de révision constitutionnelle était rompu du à de profonds désaccords dans le camp de Kibaki au sein du gouvernement de coalition. Le Comité de révision constitutionnelle fut dissout.

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