Paul Lachine

Konsolidátoři versus stimulátoři

LONDÝN – Všechny intelektuální systémy se opírají o předpoklady, které není třeba vyslovovat, protože je uznávají všichni příslušníci dané intelektuální komunity. Tyto „hluboké“ axiomy jsou zahrnuty i v ekonomii, avšak pokud zůstanou bez kritického zkoumání, mohou zavést politiky do slepé uličky. Právě to se děje i při dnešní snaze jedné země za druhou seškrtat výdaje a snížit rozpočtové schodky.

Hlavním úkolem, který si John Maynard Keynes stanovil při psaní své Obecné teorie zaměstnanosti, úroku a peněz, bylo odhalení hlubokých axiomů tvořících základ ekonomické ortodoxie jeho doby, která nepřipouštěla existenci trvalé masové nezaměstnanosti. Keynes se na adresu svých odpůrců zeptal: „V co musí věřit, aby tvrdili, že trvalá masová nezaměstnanost je vyloučena, takže vládní ‚stimul‘ s cílem zvýšit úroveň zaměstnanosti nemůže přinést žádný prospěch?“ Při odpovědi na tuto otázku Keynes rekonstruoval ortodoxní teorii – a pak ji rozmetal na kusy.

Navzdory keynesiánské revoluci si stejná otázka žádá odpověď i dnes. Čemu potřebují lidé, kteří požadují rychlou „fiskální konsolidaci“ uprostřed vysoké nezaměstnanosti, na ekonomice věřit, aby byla jejich politika soudržná?

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