Paul Lachine

巩固与刺激

伦敦——

任何知识体系都建立在某些假设之上,这些假设无须明言,因为它们是被那个知识团体的所有成员所接受的东西。经济学也隐含着此类“深刻”的公理,但是,如果我们不对它们给予仔细审视,政策制定者就可能误入歧途。这正是眼下发生在各个国家的事情:削减支出、降低预算赤字。

约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯写作《就业、利息与货币通论》的主要目标就是向人们揭示当时经济学正统观念背后的深刻公理,根据这些公理,持久的大规模失业是不可能存在的。他向反对者发问:“持久的大规模失业是不可能发生的,因此政府提高就业水平的‘刺激’有害无益,这种说法的背后逻辑是什么?”为了回答这个问题,凯恩斯重写了传统的经济学理论,然后将其完全推翻。

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