Природопользование с человеческим лицом

ПАРИЖ – Мир наблюдает стремительное уменьшение своих естественных богатств. Растительный и животный мир исчезает на всей планете беспрецедентными темпами – от 100 до 1000 раз быстрее естественной скорости вымирания.

Экосистемы земли, находящиеся в большей опасности исчезновения, расположены на территории развивающихся стран, и, таким образом, их сохранение зависит от одних из самых нуждающихся сообществ. Бедные страны в первую очередь несут убытки от разрушения своей естественной среды. Однако в странах развивающегося мира непосредственные экономические нужды часто преобладают над долговременными расчетами, и защита хрупкой среды редко стоит среди приоритетов на национальном уровне.

Биологическое разнообразие стран развивающегося мира служит источником местного и мирового пользования. На местном уровне оно заключается в том, что выживание наиболее слабых обществ часто зависит от окружающих биологических ресурсов, поскольку они являются ценными источниками пищи, энергии и дохода. По оценкам Всемирного банка природный капитал составляет четвертую часть всего богатства в странах с низким уровнем дохода, по сравнению с 3% в странах с высоким экономическим развитием. На глобальном уровне этим пользуются люди, находящиеся далеко за пределами национальных границ, поскольку естественная экосистема предоставляет совокупность таких благ, как свежий воздух и чистая вода.

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