Une conservation à visage humain

PARIS – Notre planète voit son capital naturel décliner de façon spectaculaire. Dans le monde entier, la faune et la flore disparaissent à un rythme sans précédent – 100 à 1.000 fois plus vite que le taux naturel d’extinction des espèces.

Les écosystèmes les plus à risque se trouvant dans les pays en développement, leur préservation dépend de communautés parmi les plus démunies. Inversement, les indigents sont les premiers à souffrir de la dégradation de leur environnement naturel. Or, dans le monde en développement, les besoins économiques immédiats l’emportent souvent sur les impératifs de long terme ; et protéger un environnement fragile est rarement une priorité au niveau national.

La biodiversité des nations en développement rend des services à l’échelle locale et mondiale. A l’échelle locale, parce que la survie des communautés les plus vulnérables repose souvent sur les ressources biologiques qui les entourent, qui constituent une source précieuse de nourriture, d’énergie et de revenus. Selon la Banque mondiale, le capital naturel représente un quart de la richesse totale dans les pays à faibles revenus, contre 3 % dans les économies très développées. Et à l’échelle mondiale, car la gamme de ressources des écosystèmes naturels, comme l’air pur et l’eau fraîche, profite aux individus bien au-delà des frontières nationales.

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