Sentido común sobre los minerales de zonas con conflictos

LONDRES – “Ese diamante que llevas en el dedo, ¿cómo lo conseguiste?”, pregunta el Cimbelino de Shakespeare. “Vas a torturarme”, responde el villano Iachimo, “para que no cuente lo que, si lo hiciera, te torturaría a ti”. La historia que subyace a ciertos sectores del comercio mundial de recursos naturales en la actualidad, ya se haya contado o no, sigue siendo una causa de angustia.

Los recursos naturales deberían contribuir en gran medida al desarrollo en algunos de los países que más lo necesitan y, sin embargo, en algunos de los Estados más pobres y frágiles del mundo lo que deparan es justo lo contrario. En muchos de dichos países, el comercio de recursos naturales motiva, financia y prolonga conflictos y violaciones atroces de los derechos humanos. Recursos como, por ejemplo, los diamantes, el oro, el tungsteno, el tántalo y el estaño son extraídos, pasados de contrabando y gravados con impuestos ilegales por grupos armados violentos y brindan financiación no presupuestaria a ejércitos y servicios de seguridad ilegales.

Pensemos en tan sólo cuatro países africanos: el Sudán, el Sudán del Sur, la República Centroafricana y la República Democrática del Congo. Juntos, esos países ricos en recursos representan un poco más del 13 por ciento de la población del África subsahariana y, en cambio, el 55 por ciento, aproximadamente, de los desplazados internos de esa región (y uno de cada cinco del mundo entero) por conflictos, pero el problema es mundial, con características similares en países como, por ejemplo, Colombia, Myanmar y el Afganistán.

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