Bom Senso para os Minerais de Conflito

LONDRES – “Esse diamante que está em vosso dedo, dizei, como chegou ao vosso poder?” pergunta o Cimbelino de Shakespeare. “Vós me torturais,” responde o vil Iachimo, “pelo facto de não proferir aquilo que, uma vez proferido, seria a vossa tortura.” A história por trás de algumas partes do actual comércio global de recursos naturais, independentemente de ser proferida, é uma não menor fonte de angústia.

Os recursos naturais deveriam dar um importante contributo para o desenvolvimento, em alguns dos países que mais dele precisam. Contudo, em alguns dos mais pobres e frágeis estados do mundo, trazem precisamente o oposto. Em muitos destes países, o comércio de recursos naturais motiva, financia, e prolonga conflitos e violações notórias dos direitos humanos. Recursos como os diamantes, o ouro, o tungsténio, o tântalo, e o estanho são extraídos, contrabandeados, e ilegalmente tributados por grupos armados violentos, e fornecem financiamento extra-orçamental a abusivos serviços militares e de segurança.

Considerem-se apenas quatro países Africanos: Sudão, Sudão do Sul, República Centro-Africana (RCA), e República Democrática do Congo (RDC). Em conjunto, estes países ricos em recursos são responsáveis por pouco mais de 13% da população da África Subsaariana, mas respondem por 55% das pessoas deslocadas na região (e por uma em cada cinco à volta do mundo) devido a conflitos. Mas o problema é global, com padrões semelhantes em partes de países como a Colômbia, a Birmânia, e o Afeganistão.

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