Il buon senso nella gestione dei minerali da conflitto

LONDRA – “Quel diamante che avete al dito, come è diventato vostro?” domandò Cimbelino. “Mi tortureresti”, rispose il perfido Jachimo, “perché io non dicessi quello che, detto, sarebbe tortura per te”. La storia che c’è dietro ad alcune parti del commercio globale di risorse naturali oggi, che venga rivelata o meno, è addirittura fonte di angoscia.

Le risorse naturali dovrebbero essere il principale contributo allo sviluppo in alcuni dei Paesi che ne hanno più bisogno. Eppure, in alcuni degli stati più poveri e fragili del mondo succede il contrario.  In molti Paesi, il commercio di risorse naturali stimola, finanzia e porta avanti vergognosi conflitti e abusi dei diritti umani. Risorse come diamanti, oro, tungsteno, tantalio e stagno vengono estratti, contrabbandati e tassati illegalmente da gruppi armati e violenti, e fornendo ai servizi militari e di sicurezza abusivi dei finanziamenti non previsti dai piani di bilancio.

Prendiamo quattro stati africani: il Sudan, il Sudan del Sud, la Repubblica Centrafricana (RCA) e la Repubblica Democratica del Congo (RDC). Insieme, questi Paesi ricchi di risorse naturali rappresentano poco più del 13% della popolazione dell’Africa Subsahariana, ma circa il 55% delle persone dislocate all’interno della regione (e uno su cinque a livello mondiale) a causa delle guerre. Tuttavia il problema è globale, con situazioni simili in alcune parti di Paesi come Colombia, Myanmar e Afghanistan.

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