Vernünftiger Umgang mit Konfliktmineralien

LONDON – „Sag, dieser Diamant an deinem Finger, wie kam er zu dir?“ fragt Shakespeares Cymbeline. „Du solltest foltern mich“, erwidert der Schurke Iachimo, „dass ungesagt blieb, was ausgesprochen foltert dich“. Die Hintergründe mancher Teile des globalen Handels mit natürlichen Ressourcen ist kaum weniger furchterregend, ob sie nun ausgesprochen werden oder nicht.

Naturschätze sollten eigentlich für manche der Länder, die es am nötigsten haben, einen entscheidenden Beitrag zur Entwicklung leisten. Allerdings bewirken sie in einigen der ärmsten und instabilsten Staaten der Welt das genaue Gegenteil. In vielen dieser Länder werden durch den Handel mit natürlichen Ressourcen Konflikte und eklatante Menschenrechtsverletzungen nicht nur ausgelöst, sondern auch finanziert und verlängert. Ressourcen wie Diamanten, Gold, Wolfram, Tantal und Zinn werden durch bewaffnete, gewalttätige Gruppen abgebaut, geschmuggelt und illegal versteuert. Innerhalb einer Schattenwirtschaft dienen sie der Finanzierung rücksichtsloser Militär- und Sicherheitsdienste.

Nehmen wir vier afrikanische Staaten: den Sudan, den Südsudan, die Zentralafrikanische Republik und die Demokratische Republik Kongo. Gemeinsam stellen diese ressourcenreichen Länder nur etwas mehr als 13% der Bevölkerung des Afrikas südlich der Sahara, aber 55% der durch Konflikte vertriebenen Menschen in der Region (und ein Fünftel weltweit) stammen von dort. Aber das Problem ist global. Ähnliche Muster sind in Kolumbien, Myanmar und Afghanistan vorherrschend.

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