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L'avenir de l'informatique

ZURICH – Depuis que l'informaticien américain John McCarthy a inventé le terme « intelligence artificielle » en 1955, le grand public s'imagine un avenir peuplé d'ordinateurs conscients et de robots qui pensent et agissent comme des humains. Bien qu'un tel avenir puisse en effet se concrétiser, il reste pour le moment une perspective lointaine.

Toutefois la frontière prévisible de l'informatique n'en est pas moins passionnante. Nous sommes entrés dans ce qu'IBM appelle l'ère cognitive. Les avancées de l'informatique renforcent notre capacité à interpréter de grandes quantités de données, afin de conseiller certaines des décisions les plus importantes du monde et de potentiellement révolutionner des secteurs d'activités entiers.

Le terme « informatique cognitive » renvoie aux systèmes qui, plutôt qu'étant explicitement programmés, sont conçus pour tirer les leçons de leurs expériences. Grâce à l'extraction des informations utiles à partir de données non structurées, ces systèmes accélèrent l'ère de l'information, en aidant leurs utilisateurs dans une vaste gamme de tâches, allant de l'identification de nouvelles opportunités de marché, à la découverte de nouveaux traitements pour les maladies ou encore à l'élaboration de solutions créatives pour les villes, les entreprises et les collectivités.

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