Próximamente: Capitalismo 3.0

CAMBRIDGE ­– El capitalismo está padeciendo su crisis más severa en muchas décadas. Una combinación de recesión profunda, desajustes económicos globales y la nacionalización efectiva de grandes segmentos del sector financiero en las economías avanzadas del mundo desestabilizó profundamente el equilibro entre mercados y estados. Dónde se verá afectado el nuevo equilibrio, nadie lo sabe.

Quienes predicen la caída del capitalismo tienen que lidiar con un hecho histórico importante: el capitalismo tiene una capacidad casi ilimitada de reinventarse. De hecho, su maleabilidad es la razón por la que superó crisis periódicas a lo largo de los siglos y sobrevivió a las críticas desde Karl Marx en adelante. El verdadero interrogante no es si el capitalismo puede sobrevivir -sí puede-, sino si los líderes mundiales demostrarán el liderazgo necesario para llevarlo a su próxima fase cuando emerjamos de nuestro predicamento actual.

El capitalismo no tiene parangón cuando se trata de dar rienda suelta a las energías económicas colectivas de las sociedades humanas. Es por esto que todas las sociedades prósperas son capitalistas en el sentido amplio del término: están organizadas alrededor de la propiedad privada y les permiten a los mercados desempeñar un papel importante a la hora de asignar recursos y determinar recompensas económicas. La trampa es que ni los derechos de propiedad ni los mercados pueden funcionar por sí solos. Requieren de otras instituciones sociales que los respalden.

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