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哥伦比亚送给世界的礼物

马德里——在古巴哈瓦那长达4年的会谈结束后,哥伦比亚总统胡安·曼努埃尔·桑托斯与拉丁美洲实力最强的叛乱组织哥伦比亚革命武装力量(FARC)谈判达成了结束哥伦比亚历届政府与该组织武装冲突的协议。历时60年的哥伦比亚内战造成约 220,000 人死亡及600万人流离失所。结束这场战争是一项了不起的外交成就,桑托斯理应赢得全世界的掌声。事实上,他在本年度诺贝尔和平奖的角逐中应当遥遥领先于其他竞争对手。

有三大关键因素最终导致了和平协议的签订:哥伦比亚政府军效率提高并大批消灭叛军;桑托斯之前打下的外交基础,修复了哥伦比亚与委内瑞拉、厄瓜多尔和玻利维亚等邻国磕磕绊绊的关系,由这3个邻国组成的轴心一直在为哥伦比亚革命武装力量提供后勤和政治方面的支持;最后,桑托斯巧妙地利用了古巴与美国最新的和解政策来实现哥伦比亚的国内和平。

随着谈判条件日臻成熟,桑托斯还必须化解冲突的根本原因。2011年6月他当着联合国秘书长潘基文的面签署了被害人与土地赔偿法。因为同时平定暴力地区、为成百上千万破产农民伸张正义、极大改善生活水平并有效阻止游击力量以土地改革为名行大规模屠杀之实,上述法律成为哥伦比亚和平的分水岭。该法有关侵犯人权行为中妇女儿童幸存者和因性取向而遭袭者的特别规定甚至得到了联合国驻哥伦比亚高级人权专员的赞誉。

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