La paix en Colombie, enfin?

BOGOTA – L’accord de pourparlers visant à mettre fin aux conflits armés en Colombie qui vient d’être annoncé par le président Juan Manuel Santos est un événement historique pour son pays et l’ensemble de l’Amérique Latine. C’est aussi un hommage aux ressources diplomatiques et à l’art de la négociation.

L’accord passé avec les Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie, autrement dit, les FARC, survient après de longues années de tentatives échouées de la part des différents gouvernements colombiens de tous bords pour parvenir à un arrangement avec le dernier et l’un des plus odieux mouvements de guérilla à avoir opéré en Amérique Latine. Jamais auparavant les FARC – un appareil monumental de terreur, de meurtres de masse, et de trafics de drogue – n’avaient accepté de discuter de désarmement, de la réintégration politique et sociale de ses combattants, des droits des victimes, de mettre un terme à la production de drogues, et d’une participation aux commissions « vérité et responsabilité » pour examiner les crimes commis durant un demi-siècle de conflits. Mais elles ont accepté cette fois-ci.

Ce changement de dynamique résulte de la décimation des FARC suite à de longues années de luttes, de la résilience de la société colombienne, et peut-être le plus important, d’une brillante politique régionale de la part de Santos. En affaiblissant l’axe dit Bolivarien (Venezuela, Equateur, et Bolivie), les guérilleros des FARC ont perdu leur soutien régional.  

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