Cerrar la brecha de seguridad en Asia

TOKIO – No causó mucha sorpresa el  anuncio que hizo el presidente Barack Obama a finales del año pasado sobre que Estados Unidos iba a reforzar su posición en Asia Oriental, mientras reducía sus fuerzas militares en Europa. Después de todo, el entorno de seguridad en Asia Oriental es impredecible y está cambiando rápidamente, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en Europa, donde se encuentra relativamente estable. En este contexto, los esfuerzos que ahora están en curso para establecer un marco multilateral integral para la región  pueden aprender de lo que ocurrió recientemente con la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa (OSCE).

Los EE.UU. no es el único en cambiar su enfoque de seguridad en Asia Oriental. La decisión del presidente ruso Vladimir Putin relativa a que Rusia sea por primera vez anfitriona de la reunión del Foro de Cooperación Económica Asia-Pacífico (APEC), misma que fue celebrada en el mes de septiembre en Vladivostok, refleja el creciente interés de su país en la región. Y, al igual que los EE.UU., Rusia asistió este pasado mes de noviembre a la Cumbre de Asia Oriental (EAS).

Tanto la cumbre de Asia Oriental como las reuniones ministeriales del Foro Regional de la ASEAN (ARF), celebradas en julio pasado, hicieron importantes contribuciones a la mejora del entorno de seguridad de la región. El esfuerzo del ARF en cuanto a edificar un patrón más predecible y constructivo para las relaciones de la región de Asia-Pacífico se basa en tres etapas: edificación de confianza, diplomacia preventiva y resolución de conflictos. En su dieciochoava conferencia ministerial del año pasado el ARF entró en la segunda fase, diplomacia preventiva, sin dejar de fortalecer las medidas para la edificación de confianza.

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