Paul Lachine

Justicia climática

DURBAN – Antes de la cumbre sobre cambio climático de Copenhague hace dos años, quienes suscriben nos sentamos juntos en Ciudad del Cabo para escuchar a cinco agricultores africanos de dos países diferentes, cuatro de los cuales eran mujeres, contarnos cómo el cambio climático afectaba la manera en que se ganaban el sustento. Cada uno explicó que las inundaciones y la sequía, y la falta de temporadas regulares de siembra y cultivo, no formaban parte de su experiencia normal. Sus temores son compartidos por agricultores de subsistencia y poblaciones indígenas en todo el mundo -aquellos que sufren lo peor de los cambios climáticos, aunque no hicieron nada para causarlos.

Hoy, dos años más tarde, estamos en Durban, donde Sudáfrica es el país anfitrión de la conferencia sobre cambio climático de este año, COP17, y la situación para la gente pobre en África y otras partes se ha deteriorado aún más. En su último informe, el Panel Intergubernamental de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático concluye que es casi una certeza que, en términos globales, los días calurosos se han vuelto más calurosos y ocurren con más frecuencia; de hecho, su frecuencia ha aumentado diez veces en la mayoría de las regiones del mundo.

Es más, la paradoja brutal del cambio climático es que también se están produciendo precipitaciones fuertes con más frecuencia, aumentando el riesgo de inundaciones. Desde 2003, el este de África ha tenido los ocho años más cálidos de que se tenga registro, lo cual sin duda contribuye a las condiciones graves de hambruna que hoy aquejan a 13 millones de personas en el Cuerno de África.

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