Paul Lachine

Justice climatique

DURBAN – Avant le sommet de Copenhague sur le changement climatique il y a deux ans, nous sommes venus tous les deux écouter à Cape Town cinq agriculteurs africains de pays différents, dont quatre femmes, nous expliquer comment le changement climatique a sapé leurs moyens de subsistance. Chacun a expliqué comment les inondations, la sécheresse et l'absence de saisons régulières pour semer et récolter, sortaient de leur champ normal d’expérience. Leurs craintes sont partagées par les agriculteurs de subsistance et par les populations autochtones dans le monde – des populations frappées de plein fouet par les chocs climatiques, bien qu’elles n’aient joué aucun rôle dans leur déclenchement.

Aujourd'hui, deux ans plus tard, nous sommes à Durban, où l’Afrique du Sud accueille la Conférence de changement climatique cette année, COP17, et la situation des pauvres, en Afrique et ailleurs, s'est encore détériorée. Dans son dernier rapport, le Groupe d'experts Intergouvernemental des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques, conclut qu'il est pratiquement certain que sur le plan mondial, les journées chaudes sont devenues plus chaudes et se produisent le plus souvent; en effet, leur fréquence a augmenté de 10% dans la plupart des régions du monde.

C'est d'ailleurs le paradoxe brutal du changement climatique, où de fortes précipitations se produisent plus souvent et augmentent le risque d'inondation. Depuis 2003, l'Afrique a connu ses huit années les plus chaudes, ce qui a sans aucun doute contribué à la famine sévère qui afflige 13 millions de personnes dans la Corne de l'Afrique.

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