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La croissance dans une nouvelle économie climatique

MILAN – Les actions visant à réduire les émissions de carbone et à atténuer les changements climatiques sont depuis longtemps considérées comme contraires à tout principe de croissance économique. La fragilité de la reprise économique globale est en effet souvent citée pour justifier de reporter de telles actions. Mais un récent rapport publié par le Commission mondiale sur l’économie et le climat, “The New Climate Economy: Better Growth, Better Climate” [La Nouvelle économie climatique : meilleure croissance, meilleur climat] réfute ce raisonnement. Bien loin d’être un frein à la croissance économique, le rapport conclut que les efforts pour combattre les changements climatiques pourraient relancer l’économie de manière considérable – et relativement rapide.

Quiconque a étudié les performances économiques depuis le début de la crise économique de 2008 comprend que les dommages sur les bilans – comme l’endettement excessif et les passifs hors dette non capitalisés – peuvent entrainer un ralentissement, une interruption, ou même une inversion de la croissance. Et ceux qui maîtrisent les principes de la croissance dans les pays en développement savent qu’un manque d’investissements dans le capital humain, les infrastructures, et la base technologique et de connaissances de l’économie produisent à terme des contextes incapables de soutenir une croissance durable.

Le changement climatique n’est pas très différent de ces schémas de croissance insoutenables ou déficients. Lui aussi est essentiellement un problème de bilan, basé sur les stocks de CO2 dans l’atmosphère

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