The outflow canal at Hydro-Québec's Bersimis-1 power plant David L. Ryan/The Boston Globe via Getty Images

水智能能源选择

新德里—毫无疑问,气候变化给地球造成了严重威胁,甚至有可能是生存威胁。但现有的遏制气候变化的方法只是单纯地注重削减二氧化碳排放,到头来可能造成严重的伤害,因为它没有考虑到能源业对水资源的消耗——这是气候变化的另一个主要原因。

 “水既是气候变化的原因,也是气候变化的效应,”一份国家资源委员会(National Resource Council)报告如是说。是的,水循环——让水周而复始地从云端落到地上、流向海洋又回到天空的降水、蒸发、冰冻、融化和凝结的过程——始终伴随着陆地、海洋和大气之间的能量交换,决定着地球的气候。正如大气层中碳的积累会导致气候变化,水资源的退化和耗竭也是如此。而这些过程是互相强化的关系,彼此之间互相推动和强化。

能源开采、处理(包括炼制)和生产具有高度的水密集性。能源业是除澳大利亚外的所有发达国家最大的耗水大户,而澳大利亚与大部分发展中国家一样,耗水量最大的是农业。在欧盟,发电厂消耗了一年中淡水总消耗量的44%;美国的这一数字是41%。

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