Jennifer Kohnke

Historia de dos tratados

PRAGA – El mundo ha vuelto a fracasar en su intento de alcanzar acuerdo sólido alguno sobre el clima, esta vez en las negociaciones que concluyeron recientemente en Doha. El lector puede no haberlo advertido, porque, en contraste muy marcado con los años anteriores, la mayoría de los medios de comunicación, como reflejo de un desinterés cada vez mayor del público, se han limitado a pasar por alto dichas negociaciones.

La reunión de Doha era la continuación de veinte años de negociaciones fracasadas sobre el clima, desde la Cumbre de la Tierra inicial, celebrada en Río en 1992. Allí, los países prometieron reducir en el año 2000 las emisiones de gases que provocan el efecto de invernadero a los niveles de 1990; los países de la OCDE se alejaron del objetivo en casi un nueve por ciento. El Protocolo de Kyoto de 1998 ha fracaso casi enteramente y el empeño de salvar el mundo en Copenhague en 2009 se hundió estrepitosamente.

Hasta ahora, las emisiones del mundo no han cesado de aumentar –y a un ritmo acelerado–, pues las de 2011 fueron un 50 por ciento mayores que en 1990. Los veinte últimos años de negociaciones mundiales sobre el clima han reducido ese aumento en tan sólo medio punto porcentual.

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