Miner Daniel Mihailescu | Getty Images

За рамками углеродных индикаторов

БЕРЛИН – За последние десять лет выражение «изменение климата» стало практически синонимом понятия «выбросы углекислого газа». Сокращение количества парниковых газов в атмосфере, измеряемых в тоннах «углеродного эквивалента» (CO2e), стало главной задачей в деле сохранения планеты. Однако такой упрощённый подход никак не поможет преодолеть комплексный, сопровождающийся множеством взаимозависимостей экологический кризис, с которым мы столкнулись.

Однобокий упор мировой экологической политики на «углеродные индикаторы» стал результатом всеобщего увлечения учётом и измерениями. Мир живёт абстракциями – калории, мили, футы, теперь вот тонны «CO2e». Они кажутся объективными и реальными, особенно если о них говорят «эксперты» (обычно экономисты). В результате, мы, как правило, игнорируем историю, стоящую за каждой подобной абстракцией, а также динамику интересов и политики, их формирующих.

Яркий пример могущественной, но при этом достаточно иллюзорной глобальной абстракции – это валовый внутренний продукт. Он стал основным индикатором экономического развития и успехов государств после Второй мировой войны, когда мировые державы создавали международные финансовые институты, в чью задачу входила оценка сравнительной экономической мощи. На сегодня, впрочем, ВВП превратился в источник всеобщего разочарования, поскольку он не способен отразить реальность, в которой живут люди. Как дальний свет автомобиля, абстракции могут быть очень яркими, но одновременно они делают невидимым то, что находится за пределами освещённого участка.

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