Miner Daniel Mihailescu | Getty Images

Para além da métrica do carbono

BERLIM – Ao longo dos últimos dez anos, as "alterações climáticas" tornaram-se quase sinônimo de "emissões de carbono". A redução dos gases com efeito estufa na atmosfera, medidos em toneladas de "dióxido de carbono equivalente" (CO2e), tornou-se o objectivo primordial na procura da preservação do planeta. No entanto, não é concebível que uma abordagem tão simplista consiga resolver as crises ecológicas altamente complexas e interligadas que enfrentamos atualmente.

O foco quase exclusivo da política ambiental global na "métrica do carbono" reflete uma obsessão mais profunda relativa à mensuração e à contabilização. O mundo rege-se por abstrações (calorias, quilômetros, quilogramas, e agora toneladas de CO2e) que são aparentemente objetivas e confiáveis, especialmente quando incorporadas na linguagem "especializada" (frequentemente no domínio da economia). Consequentemente, tendemos a ignorar os efeitos da história de cada abstração e as dinâmicas de poder e política que continuam a moldá-la.

Um exemplo-chave de uma poderosa e algo ilusória abstração global é o produto interno bruto (PIB), que foi adoptado como a principal medida de desempenho e desenvolvimento econômico de um país após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, quando as potências mundiais se dedicavam à criação de instituições financeiras internacionais que deveriam refletir o poder econômico relativo de cada Estado membro. No entanto, atualmente o PIB tornou-se uma fonte de frustração generalizada, uma vez que não reflecte  a realidade da vida das pessoas. À semelhança da luz alta dos faróis de de um carro, as abstracções podem iluminar muito, mas podem igualmente tornar invisível aquilo que seu feixe de luz não alcança.

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