Miner Daniel Mihailescu | Getty Images

除去碳指标

柏林——过去10年来,“气候变化”几乎成了“碳排放”的同义词。以“碳当量”(CO2e)吨数为计量标准的大气温室气体的减少已逐渐成为地球保护事业的主要目标。但要靠如此简单的做法解决我们目前面临的极度复杂并互相联系的生态危机是不可能的。

全球环境政策一心一意的关注碳指标恰恰反映了人们对会计和计量标准普遍的痴迷态度。世界运行靠的是卡路里、英里、磅以及现在的碳当量吨数等等貌似客观可靠的抽象概念,尤其当它们与“专业”(往往涉及经济领域)的语言相结合。结果导致我们往往忽视了这些抽象概念的历史影响,以及仍在对其造成影响的权力和政治等动态因素。

国内生产总值(GDP)就是一个强大但有点虚幻的全球抽象概念的重要例子,它在二战结束后逐渐成为衡量国家经济发展和绩效的主要指标,当时世界大国建立的国际金融体系本来应该反应其各自相对的经济力量。但今天,GDP已经成为民众失望的普遍来源,因为它反应不了现实的民众生活。抽象概念可以像汽车的远光灯一样给人带来很大启发;但同时也能让光柱以外的地方更加难以看到。

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