Un bel avenir pour les technologies propres

MUNICH – Beaucoup d’observateurs sont à juste titre amenés à considérer qu’il en serait fini de l’essor des fameuses technologies propres. Ces deux dernières années, de nombreux indices boursiers relatifs à ces technologies ont en effet enregistré de faibles performances. En Europe, l’énergie solaire a subi un violent revers lorsque la Commission européen a décidé de supprimer progressivement les subventions aux énergies renouvelables d’ici 2017. Les installations de panneaux solaires ont diminué de près de 60 % en Allemagne pour l’année 2013, et de 70 % en Italie. Pendant ce temps au Royaume-Uni, moins de 30 % des accords initiaux de technologies propres soutenues par capital-risque étaient effectivement été financés.

En réalité, cette situation n’a rien de nouveau. Les convulsions du secteur des technologies propres ne sont en effet que les symptômes d’un cycle qui caractérise les technologies émergentes : enthousiasme effervescent, prévisions excessives, puis consolidation – finalement suivis par une stabilité et une reprise de la croissance. En effet, de récentes évolutions sous-jacentes indiquent une transformation beaucoup plus significative : les technologies propres deviennent aujourd’hui viables sur le plan commercial.

La confiance dans l’avenir du secteur des technologies propres repose sur la nécessité d’élaborer des solutions durables au sein d’une planète accueillant une population sans cesse plus riche. Au cours des 20 prochaines années, le nombre de consommateurs de la classe moyenne devrait passer à quelque trois milliards d’individus, contre 1,8 milliards aujourd’hui. Les nouveaux modes de vie de ces consommateurs nécessiteront des ressources, et notamment de l’énergie.

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