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Nuevas políticas para las energías limpias

NUEVA YORK – Los diplomáticos han hecho su trabajo: cerraron el acuerdo climático de París en diciembre y los líderes políticos se reunieron la semana pasada en las Naciones Unidas para firmar el nuevo pacto. Pero su implementación es la parte verdaderamente difícil. Los gobiernos necesitan un nuevo enfoque para una cuestión que es extremadamente compleja, de largo plazo y cuya escala es global.

En el centro del desafío climático reside un desafío energético. Aproximadamente el 80 % de la energía primaria el mundo proviene de compuestos de carbono: carbón, petróleo y gas. Al ser quemados, emiten el dióxido de carbono que causa del calentamiento global. Para 2070 necesitamos una economía mundial casi completamente libre de emisiones de carbono para evitar que el calentamiento global se salga peligrosamente de control.

El acuerdo de París reconoce estos hechos básicos. Hace un llamado al mundo para limitar las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (especialmente el CO2) a niveles netos nulos durante la segunda mitad del siglo. Para esto, los gobiernos no solo deben preparar planes hasta el año 2030 (las llamadas Contribuciones Determinadas a Nivel Nacional, o INDC), sino también hasta mediados de siglo (las llamadas Estrategias de Desarrollo con Bajas Emisiones, o LEDS, por su sigla en inglés).

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