Nuclear energy Bloomberg/Getty Images

Новая политика для чистой энергетики

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – Дипломаты выполнили свою часть работы, согласовав в декабре Парижское соглашение о климате. А на прошлой неделе руководители государств собрались в ООН для подписания этого нового договора. Однако труднее всего, конечно, будет его исполнить. Правительствам необходимы новые подходы к решению данной задачи – комплексной, долгосрочной и глобальной по своим масштабам.

По своей сути, проблема климата является проблемой энергетики. Около 80% первичных источников энергии, используемой в мире, основаны на углероде – это уголь, нефть и газ. При их сжигании происходит выброс углекислого газа, вызывающего глобальное потепление. К 2070 году нам нужна такая мировая экономика, которая будет почти на 100% свободна от углеродных источников энергии. Это позволит предотвратить опасный выход процесса глобального потепления из-под контроля.

Парижским соглашением эти базовые факты признаются. Соглашение призывает страны мира снизить выбросы парниковых газов, в первую очередь CO2, до «суммарно нулевых» (net-zero) уровней уже во второй половине столетия. В связи с этим правительствам надо будет разрабатывать планы не только до 2030 года (так называемые «Вклады, определяемые на национальном уровне», Nationally Determined Contributions или NDC), но и до середины столетия (так называемые «Стратегии развития с низким уровнем выбросов», Low-Emission Development Strategies или LEDS).

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