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La nuova politica per l’energia pulita

NEW YORK – I diplomatici hanno fatto il proprio lavoro, che si è concluso con l’accordo sul clima di Parigi svoltosi a dicembre. E i leader politici si sono riuniti la scorsa settimana per siglare il nuovo accordo. Anche se la parte dura è sicuramente l’implementazione. I governi hanno bisogno di un nuovo approccio per affrontare un tema molto complesso, a lungo termine e di portata mondiale.

La sfida sul clima riguarda essenzialmente l’energia. Circa l’80% dell’energia primaria mondiale deriva da fonti basate sui combustibili fossili: carbone, petrolio e gas. Con la loro combustione emettono il diossido di carbonio che causa il riscaldamento globale. Per il 2070 serve un’economia mondiale che sia 100% “carbon-free” per evitare che il riscaldamento globale vada pericolosamente fuori controllo.

L’accordo di Parigi riconosce questi aspetti. Chiede al mondo di tagliare le emissioni di gas serra (soprattutto Co2) fino a toccare livelli zero nella seconda metà del secolo. A tal scopo, i governi stanno per preparare dei piani non solo fino all’anno 2030 (i cosiddetti Ndc, Nationally Determined Contributions), ma anche fino alla metà del secolo (le cosiddette Leds, Low-Emission Development Strategies).

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