Nuclear energy Bloomberg/Getty Images

Eine neue Politik für saubere Energie

NEW YORK – Die Diplomaten haben ihre Arbeit getan und im Dezember das Pariser Klimaabkommen geschlossen. Und in der letzten Woche kamen bei den Vereinten Nationen Regierungsvertreter zusammen, um das neue Übereinkommen zu unterzeichnen. Die Umsetzung freilich dürfte der schwierige Teil sein. Die Regierungen brauchen einen neuen Ansatz für ein Problem, das hoch komplex, langfristig und von globalem Ausmaß ist.

Im Kern ist die Klimaherausforderung ein Energieproblem. Rund 80% der weltweiten Primärenergie stammt aus kohlenstoffhaltigen Energieträgern: Kohle, Öl und Gas. Werden diese verbrannt, geben sie das Kohlendioxid ab, das die globale Erwärmung verursacht. Bis 2070 brauchen wir eine zu nahezu 100% kohlenstofffreie Weltwirtschaft, um zu verhindern, dass die globale Erwärmung gefährlich außer Kontrolle gerät.

Das Pariser Abkommen erkennt diese grundlegenden Tatsachen an. Es ruft die Welt dazu auf, die Netto-Treibhausgasemissionen (insbesondere CO2) in der zweiten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts auf null zu senken. Zu diesem Zweck sollen die Regierungen Pläne nicht nur bis zum Jahr 2030 aufstellen (die sogenannten national festgelegten Beiträge („Nationally Determined Contributions“ oder NDCs)), sondern zusätzlich bis zur Jahrhundertmitte (die sogenannten emissionsarmen Entwicklungsstrategien („Low-Emission Development Strategies“ oder LEDS)).

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