hydroelectric dam Sia Kambou/AFP/Getty Images

能源、经济学和环境

伦敦—要保证低碳未来并开始解决气候变化挑战,世界需要增加可再生能源投资。那么如何实现呢?发电系统各有各的缺陷,即使是“绿色”电力项目,也会留下地理足迹,必须仔细管理以减轻“能量蔓延”和对景观、河流和海洋的相关影响。

水电是可再生能源基础设施的落址如何产生意料外后果的最明显的例子。筑坝发电是目前世界规模最大的可再生能量来源,其产生的电力比其他所有可再生能源的总和还要多一倍。尽管太阳能和风电项目大幅扩容,但大部分预测仍然认为,要满足减轻全球气候变化的目标,至少需要在2040年前将水电容量增加50%。

尽管水电带来了巨大的憧憬,但在决定建坝时仍然需要考虑诸多经济和生态后果。比如,阻拦和限制水流会给内陆渔场带来巨大的破坏。准备进行水电项目开发的流域的渔业年产量高达六百万吨以上。如果不进行合理的规划,这些项目可能影响到超过1亿人口的关键粮食和收入来源。

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