Park in Paris, France.

Vers un New Deal vert

LONDRES – L'accord global conclu à Paris la semaine dernière est en fait le troisième accord sur le climat atteint au cours du mois écoulé. Le premier est arrivé à la fin de novembre, quand un groupe de milliardaires, dirigé par Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg et Jeff Bezos, a annoncé la création d'un fonds de 20 milliards de dollars pour soutenir la recherche dans le domaine des énergies propres. Le même jour, un groupe de 20 pays, dont les États-Unis, le Royaume-Uni, l'Allemagne, l'Inde, la Chine et le Brésil, a accepté de doubler ses investissements dans l'énergie verte, pour un total de 20 milliards de dollars par an.

De ces deux annonces précédant la conférence de Paris, c’est celle de la Breakthrough Energy Coalition (BEC) – Gates et ses collègues entrepreneurs – qui a attiré la plupart des gros titres. Cela n’est pas surprenant, compte tenu de la forte association dans l'imagination populaire entre innovation et secteur privé. Si une percée technologique est nécessaire dans la lutte contre le changement climatique, de qui devons-nous l’attendre, sinon des sorciers de la Silicon Valley et d'autres centres d'innovation du libre marché?

Gates lui-même est le premier à reconnaître que la perception du public est loin d'être exacte. « Le secteur privé sait comment construire des entreprises, évaluer le potentiel de réussite et prendre les risques qui conduisent à commercialiser d’idées novatrices », explique le manifeste de sa coalition. « Cependant, dans l’environnement des affaires actuel, il est peu probable que l'équilibre risque-récompense d’investissements à un stade précoce dans des systèmes d'énergie potentiellement transformateurs puisse passer les tests de marché des réseaux d’investisseurs privés et des spécialistes du capital risque traditionnels. »

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