公民与赤贫

20年前,国际扶轮社领导的草根运动决定行动。该社为志愿性组织,在200多个国家拥有大约120万会员。到二十世纪八十年代中叶,全球每年发生30多万起小儿麻痹症,但是这种疾病在最富裕国家已消除,这些国家已将接种疫苗列入常规程序。扶轮社接受挑战,向公共健康系统比较薄弱或根本不存在的地区的贫困人口提供疫苗。扶轮社人不仅希望减少小儿麻痹症病例数量,而且希望完全消除这种疾病。这一目标的实现如今指日可待了。

扶轮社人并非等待政客们奋起与小儿麻痹症作斗争,而是领导斗争。几年以后,世界卫生组织以及当时其他一些国际机构和捐助国加入了这一事业,创建了目前支持扶轮社愿景的政府机构与私人组织联盟。到2006年,小儿麻痹症病例总数急剧下降,每年不到3,000例。

完全消除小儿麻痹症为期不远,但依然难以捉摸,因为近年来小儿麻痹症的爆发困扰了一个又一个国家。有些情况下,如尼日利亚北部,社会对疫苗的抵制阻碍了人口接种的覆盖率。小儿麻痹症小范围传播现象在印度、巴基斯坦和阿富汗继续存在。在其他一些国家,来自小儿麻痹症尚未完全消除地区的旅行者将这种疾病重新引入。罕见的情况下,疫苗本身不起作用,导致感染。

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