Harvest market for poor people in NYC Neville Elder/Getty Images

Pertumbuhan Inklusif Bergantung pada Kota

PARIS, WASHINGTON, DC – Kita hidup di masa yang penuh gejolak, dan ketidakpuasan terhadap status quo semakin meningkat. Alasan atas ketidapuasan ini berbeda dari satu negara ke negara lain, namun terdapat benang merah, yaitu perasaan bahwa perekonomian hanya menguntungkan sekelompok orang saja. 

Memang benar, keuntungan dari perkembangan ekonomi semakin menguntungkan kelompok yang berpendapatan terbesar. Di negara-negara OECD, orang yang termasuk dalam 10% pendapatan teratas mendapatkan sekitar sepuluh kali lipat dari orang yang termasuk dalam 10% pendapatan terendah – meningkat dari tujuh kali lipat di 30 tahun lalu. Pada tahun 2012, diantara 18 negara OECD dengan data pembanding, orang yang termasuk dalam 10% pendapatan teratas mendapatkan 50% dari total kekayaan rumah tangga, sementara orang yang termasuk dalam 40% pendapatan terendah mendapatkan hanya 3% total kekayaan rumah tangga.   

Kita semua akan menanggung akibat jika ketimpangan meningkat. Di antara negara-negara OECD, peningkatan ketimpangan mengurangi 6-10 angka dari keseluruhan PDB antara tahun 1990 dan 2010. Ketika kelompok orang termiskin tidak dapat memenuhi potensi mereka, hal ini akan berdampak buruk pada pertumbuhan ekonomi.

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