Harvest market for poor people in NYC Neville Elder/Getty Images

La croissance inclusive dépend des villes

PARIS, WASHINGTON, DC – Nous traversons une période trouble et le mécontentement populaire augmente face au statu quo. Les motifs de la frustration populaire sont variables d'un pays à l'autre, mais le point commun que l'on retrouve partout, c'est le sentiment que l'économie est truquée en faveur de quelques-uns.

En effet, les bénéfices de la croissance économique sont de plus en plus destinés aux très hauts revenus. Dans les pays de l'OCDE, les personnes occupant la tranche des 10 % des plus hauts revenus gagnent environ dix fois plus que les 10 % inférieurs, soit sept fois plus qu'il y a près de 30 ans. En 2012, parmi les 18 pays de l'OCDE aux données comparables, le top 10 % des plus riches représentait 50 % du total des richesses des ménages, tandis que les 40 % des moins riches ne représentaient que 3 %.

Lorsque les inégalités atteignent de nouveaux sommets, tout le monde en paie le prix. Dans plusieurs pays de l'OCDE, les inégalités croissantes ont atteint 6 à 10 points de pourcentage du PIB global entre 1990 et 2010. Lorsque les personnes les plus pauvres sont incapables de réaliser leur potentiel, la croissance économique en pâtit.

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