Le lourd tribut de la viande à petit prix

BERLIN – La production intensive de bétail constitue l’un des facteurs clés de l’industrialisation agricole. Son expansion implacable ne cesse de contribuer au changement climatique, à la déforestation, à la disparition de la biodiversité, ainsi qu’à la violation des droits de l’homme – le tout pour satisfaire l’appétit malsain des sociétés occidentales à l’égard de la viande à bas prix.

L’Europe et les États-Unis ont été les plus gros consommateurs de viande au XXe siècle, avec une consommation annuelle moyenne de 60 à 90 kg par personne – soit bien au-dessus des besoins nutritionnels de l’être humain. Bien que les taux de consommation y stagnent, voire connaissent une diminution dans certaines régions, cette consommation demeure bien supérieure à celle de la plupart des autres régions du monde.

Pendant ce temps, les économies émergentes – et notamment les fameux BRICS (Brésil, Russie, Chine et Afrique du Sud) – voient leur classe moyenne bourgeonnante adopter de nouvelles habitudes alimentaires, de plus en plus ressemblantes à celles des pays riches. Au cours des prochaines décennies, à mesure que les revenus continueront d’augmenter, la demande en viande et produits laitiers connaîtra une hausse similaire.

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