Opciones para aprender

ESTOCOLMO – Las economías de los países nórdicos están obteniendo buenos resultados, lo que se explica en parte porque están reformando gradualmente su “modelo social”, adaptándolo a las nuevas realidades de formas que responden a las peticiones de los ciudadanos, pero en ese cambio no hay nada exclusivamente nórdico. Al contrario, otros pueden emularlo.

Evidentemente, semejante política requiere una importante inversión en investigación e innovación. Suecia, por ejemplo, invierte  más que ningún otro país europeo en ese sector: bastante más que la meta del 3 por ciento del PIB fijada por la UE. Muchos países invierten menos e incluso el 4 por ciento del PIB de Suecia podría no ser suficiente, en vista de que el gasto en investigación e innovación de China, la India y los Estados Unidos es mayor.

Además, si no se pueden plasmar los conocimientos en negocios logrados, las grandes inversiones en investigación e innovación pueden no ser suficientemente útiles. Para ello, hay que adoptar políticas que lo abarquen todo: desde la enseñanza para párvulos hasta la colaboración entre universidades y empresas, además de un clima empresarial general en el que se recompense el éxito y no se considere una catástrofe humana el fracaso. El éxito de los Estados Unidos se basa en gran medida en una concepción de esa clase.

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