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СТОКГОЛЬМ – Экономика скандинавских стран функционирует хорошо, и частично это связано с тем, что они постепенно реформируют свою «социальную модель», приспосабливая её к новым реалиям, чтобы она соответствовала потребностям людей. Но в данном изменении нет ничего исключительно «скандинавского». Напротив, данные изменения могут стать примером и для других стран.

Очевидно, что подобная политика требует значительных инвестиций в исследования и разработки. Швеция, например, инвестирует в данную сферу больше, чем любая другая европейская страна – гораздо больше установленной в ЕС величины в 3% от ВВП. Многие страны инвестируют меньше данной величины, и даже 4% от ВВП в Швеции, возможно, недостаточны по сравнению с более высокими затратами на исследования и разработки в Китае, Индии и Соединённых Штатах.

Кроме того, крупные инвестиции в исследования и разработки могут иметь ограниченные результаты, если знания не трансформируются в успешный бизнес. Для этого требуется использование политики, учитывающей всё, начиная с подготовки воспитателей детских садов и заканчивая сотрудничеством между университетами и компаниями, а также наличие общего делового климата, в котором успех вознаграждается, а неудача не рассматривается как человеческая катастрофа. Успех Америки во многом основан на подобном мышлении.

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