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斯德哥尔摩—北欧国家的经济表现不错,其中很重要的原因之一就是它们在逐步改革自己的“社会模式”,响应人民的需求来应对新的现实情况。但这种变革并不是独一无二“北欧式”的。相反,它是其他国家可以效仿的。

显然,这样的政策需要在研发方面大量投资。例如,瑞典在这方面的投资超过了其他任何一个欧洲国家—远超过了欧盟占GDP 3%的目标。许多国家投资少于瑞典,鉴于中国、印度和美国在研发方面的更高投入,即便是瑞典占GDP 4%的投入可能也是不足的。

另外,如果知识不能被转化为成功的业务,那么对研发大量投资的作用也可能是有限的。需要采取的政策将会涵盖从幼稚园培训到公司与高校的合作,以及一种健康的商业大环境的营造。在这样的环境下,成功会得到奖赏,而失败也不会被视作人为的灾难。美国的成功在很大程度上就是基于这样的一种思维。

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