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Un hijo de la Revolución Cultural

LONDRES – Hace cincuenta años este mes, Mao Zedong lanzó la Revolución Cultural en China: una década de caos, persecución y violencia, motivados por la ideología y el interés de aumentar el poder personal de Mao. En vez de reflexionar sobre el legado destructivo de ese episodio, el gobierno chino limitó su discusión, y los ciudadanos chinos (solo interesados en la prosperidad económica obtenida tras tres décadas de reformas promercado) dieron su consentimiento. Pero en momentos en que el presidente Xi Jinping se lanzó a una campaña de purgas impiadosas y culto a su personalidad, enterrar el pasado supone un costo.

En agosto de 1966, Mao publicó en forma de dazibao (afiche en grandes caracteres chinos) un documento titulado Bombardead el cuartel general, para promover la purga del principal “infiltrado capitalista” dentro del Partido Comunista de China: el entonces presidente Liu Shaoqi. En ese documento, Mao convocaba a la juventud china a “derribar al emperador de su caballo” y comenzar una rebelión de base.

Los jóvenes respondieron con celeridad. Rápidamente se formaron en todo el país grupos paramilitares estudiantiles (los “guardias rojos”) dispuestos a cumplir la voluntad de Mao. En menos de cien días, Mao logró una amplia purga del liderazgo central del partido, que incluyó a Liu y Deng Xiaoping.

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