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La transición de China hacia el crecimiento liderado por las ciudades

SHANGHÁI – China ha logrado cuatro décadas de rápido crecimiento económico. Sin embargo, aún queda por aprovechar plenamente una fuente poderosa de crecimiento: la urbanización. Al presente, el potencial de las megaciudades, en su calidad de motores de dinamismo y prosperidad crecientes, conquista – al fin – la atención de alto nivel que se merece.

Durante el transcurso de la última década, China ha estado trabajando para pasar de un modelo de crecimiento liderado por la industria manufacturera, que es un modelo impulsado por la mano de obra barata, a un modelo innovador y de mayor valor agregado, que es uno sustentado por las fuertes ganancias de productividad. La urbanización será fundamental para facilitar este cambio, en especial debido a que permite que entren en funcionamiento las economías de escala.

Al presente, si bien China es el país más poblado del mundo y la segunda economía más grande del planeta, sólo la mitad de la población vive en zonas urbanizadas, y menos del 10% reside permanentemente en megaciudades. Además, la tasa de urbanización del país se mantiene muy por debajo del promedio mundial.

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