Peter Parks/Getty Images

中国经济正在转向超级城市引导的增长

上海---尽管其经济保持了40年的高速增长,但中国似乎直到最近才开始把注意力转向城市(特别是超级大城市)本身作为未来经济增长的驱动器(driver)。眼下的中国学术界就发展超级大城市(super city)和推动形成都市圈(metropolis circle)问题的讨论富有热情。而实际情况已经是,那些希望进一步扩大特大城市的经济规模或经济效率提升至更高水平的地方政策受到了北京政府的支持,尽管也不乏批评之声。不仅如此,最近那些试图在相邻的经济中心城市之间建立更深度和更紧密网络联系的都市圈建议极有可能将获得最高领导人的鼓励。可以期待,假如这个城市驱动的增长趋势持续10年,中国的城市化水平有望达到全球的平均值。

近年来中国开始流行青睐超级城市和城市圈的这种观念丝毫不奇怪,它跟过去10年来中国试图要脱离其过去成功的增长模式有关。尽管制造业高度发达,但直至最近,中国的城市化进程一直慢于其工业化和经济发展的速度。尽管中国今日已是世界第二大经济体,但仅有一半的人口是城市居民,而生活在超级大城市的人口不到总人口的十分之一。

中国过去25年的快速工业化进程中,像北京、上海和广州这样的超大城市的角色也并非举足轻重。这在工业化最为迅猛的长江三角洲和珠江三角洲地区极为典型。在这些地区,至少在相当长的一段时间,相对于那些中小城市,大城市被束缚在国有部门的僵化体制之下,在生产性资本的积累、吸引外商直接投资(FDI)落地和本土企业家精神上并无压倒一切的优势,反而那些中小城市借势而为,一举崛起,成为制造业的中心。

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