China clean energy Jiang Aiping/ZumaPress

Chinas Wege zu einem nachhaltigen Finanzsystem

PEKING – Mit der von China initiierten Gründung der Asiatischen Infrastruktur- und Investitionsbank (AIBB) wird vermehrt diskutiert, ob eine neue Generation von Entwicklungsbanken, unter Führung von Schwellenländern, gebraucht wird, um zu gewährleisten, dass Prinzipien des ökologisch nachhaltigen Wachstums bei Finanzierungsentscheidungen angemessen Rechnung getragen wird. Viel wichtiger ist allerdings, ob die Kapitalmärkte der Entwicklungsländer, die für das internationale Finanzsystem eine zunehmend zentrale Bedeutung erlangt haben, auf breiterer Basis von solchen Prinzipien untermauert werden.

Die Frage scheint sich von nun an bejahen zu lassen. China und andere große Schwellenländer scheinen entschlossen, Finanzsysteme zu gestalten, die den langfristigen Notwendigkeiten einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung ohne Ausgrenzung dienen. Sie können es jedoch nicht allein schaffen, eine wirklich integrative und nachhaltige globale Wirtschaft zu gestalten.

Politisch gesteuerte Anlageinstrumente, deren Zahl und Bedeutung in den vergangenen Jahren gewachsen ist, sind für diese Bemühungen entscheidend. Die AIIB und die in der Entstehung begriffene Neue Entwicklungsbank der BRICS-Staaten (Brasilien, Russland, Indien, China und Südafrika) sind zwar international besonders sichtbar, sie bilden aber lediglich die Spitze des Eisbergs. Die beiden größten Entwicklungsbanken der Welt – die Brasilianische Entwicklungsbank und die China Development Bank – verwalten zusammen Gelder in Höhe von rund 1,5 Billionen US-Dollar.

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