China clean energy Jiang Aiping/ZumaPress

Le systéme financier chinois et l'écologie

PEKIN – L'impératif d'une croissance durable respectueuse de l'environnement impose-t-elle la création d'une nouvelle génération de banques de développement à l'initiative des pays émergents ? La création de la Banque asiatique d'investissement pour les infrastructures (BAII) par la Chine a intensifié le débat sur cette question. Pourtant il en est une autre au moins aussi cruciale : de plus en plus important sur la scène internationale, les marchés financiers des pays en développement peuvent-ils encourager ce type de croissance ?

Pour l'instant la réponse semble être positive. La Chine et les autres grands pays émergents paraissent engagés dans la construction de systèmes financiers au service d'un développement durable et inclusif. Mais ils ne peuvent à eux tout seuls bâtir une économie mondiale durable et inclusive.

Les véhicules d'investissement spécialisés dont l'importance et le nombre va croissant depuis quelques années jouent un rôle crucial pour cela. La BAII et la future Nouvelle banque pour le développement créée par les BRICS (le Brésil, la Russie, l'Inde, la Chine et l'Afrique du Sud) en sont l'illustration la plus visible, mais ce n'est que la partie émergée de l'iceberg. Les deux plus grandes banques de développement de la planète (la Banque brésilienne de développement et la Banque chinoise de développement) gèrent à elles deux 1 500 milliards d'actifs.

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