Japan China South Korea Foreign Ministers northeast asia Yao Qilin/ZumaPress

Les pays d'Asie de l'Est doivent coopérer

DENVER – Pour la première fois depuis trois ans, les ministres des Affaires étrangères de la Chine, de la Corée du Sud et du Japon se sont rencontrés. Ils se sont réunis à Séoul la semaine dernière pour discuter d'une possible coopération sur un éventail de domaines allant du contre-terrorisme à la pollution de l'air. Mais au-delà de leur accord pour se rencontrer à nouveau "le plus tôt possible", la principale question qui se pose à eux reste sans réponse : parviendront-ils à résoudre ou à tout le moins à faire abstraction de leurs conflits territoriaux et de leurs antagonismes historiques, de manière à progresser sur la voie de leurs intérêts communs ?

C'est sûrement ce que souhaite la Chine, au moins en ce qui concerne sa Banque asiatique d'investissement pour les infrastructures (BAII), dont l'objectif à peine voilé est de stimuler le secteur de la construction en Chine. Tout en acceptant poliment d'étudier l'invitation chinoise à se joindre à cette Banque, le Japon et la Corée du Sud étaient réticents à la rejoindre, car les deux pays savent qu'il s'agit d'une initiative qui tend à affaiblir la Banque asiatique de développement et même la Banque mondiale. La Corée du Sud vient cependant d'annoncer son accord.

La BAII est envisagée comme une banque de développement à l'ancienne qui lance des projets d'infrastructure avec un minimum de bureaucratie, sans examiner leurs conséquences sociales et environnementales. Mais si elle parvient à ses objectifs ambitieux, dont la création d'une nouvelle Route de la soie vers l'Europe, la Chine devra surmonter les réticences de ses voisins et affronter l'impatience croissante de la population chinoise qui espère en un avenir grandiose.

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