Les problèmes de voisinage de la Chine

BEIJING La politique de “bon voisinage” mise en ouvre par la Chine était déjà en crise depuis la fin de la Guerre Froide, mais aujourd'hui, elle est mise à mal comme jamais : depuis peu, la Chine et, l'un après l'autre, les pays qui la jouxtent ont vu leurs relations se détériorer rapidement.

Entre les différends territoriaux avec le Vietnam et les Philippines dans la mer de Chine méridionale, et les tensions avec la Birmanie (Myanmar) et la Thaïlande, des relations qui étaient naguère saines, voire amicales, se sont dégradées. Le Myanmar a décidé d'enterrer le projet du barrage de Myitsone auquel la Chine apportait son soutien, ce qui a provoqué un scandale chez ces derniers. En outre, au mois d'octobre, le meurtre des 13 membres d'équipage d'un bateau chinois sur le fleuve Mékong nous a brutalement rappelé que la frontière terrestre du sud de la Chine, qui est pacifique au premier abord – il est vrai que tout s'y est bien passé pendant près de 20 ans –, a tout d'un quartier hostile aujourd'hui.

Les Chinois et leur gouvernement ont été particulièrement consternés devant le massacre du Mékong, ce qui semble démontrer, une fois de plus, l'incapacité du gouvernement à protéger ses citoyens à l'étranger, en dépit du statut international que la Chine a récemment trouvé. Par conséquent, deux questions pertinentes se posent : pourquoi les voisins de la Chine ont-ils choisi de négliger ses intérêts ? Et pourquoi, malgré l'essor de la Chine, ses autorités semblent-elles ne plus être en mesure de garantir la sécurité des Chinois à l'étranger, ainsi que ses intérêts commerciaux ?

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