Le triomphe de la volonté chinoise

MOSCOU – Dans quelques jours débutera la cérémonie d’ouverture des Jeux olympiques de Pékin. Les spectateurs verront une chorégraphie minutieusement préparée empreinte de kitsch nationaliste. A n’en pas douter, toute image qui rappellerait les sections d’assaut hitlérienne défilant au pas de l’oie est la dernière que souhaiteraient les dirigeants chinois pour leurs Jeux – après tout, le nationalisme chinois officiel proclame l’« essor pacifique » du pays dans un « développement harmonieux » idyllique. Pourtant, sur le plan esthétique et politique, le parallèle est à peine exagéré.

En effet, en choisissant Albert Speer Jr - fils de l’architecte favori d’Hitler et concepteur des Jeux de Berlin de 1936 – pour mettre au point le vaste plan des Jeux de Pékin, le gouvernement chinois a fait allusion à la politisation radicale de l’esthétique, qui était une caractéristique du totalitarisme du vingtième siècle. A l’image de ces régimes, qu’ils soient fascistes ou communistes, les dirigeants chinois se sont efforcés de transformer l’espace public et les manifestations sportives en des preuves visibles de leur santé et de leur légitimité.

La commission de Speer Jr a dû mettre au point un schéma d’ensemble pour l’accès au complexe olympique de Pékin. Le projet était axé sur la construction d’une avenue imposante reliant la Cité interdite au stade national, où aura lieu la cérémonie d’ouverture. Le plan de Speer Sr pour « Germania », nom choisi par Hitler pour le Berlin qu’il prévoyait de construire après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, s’appuyait aussi sur un puissant axe central.

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