La hegemonía del agua a través de las represas en Asia

NEW DELHI – Como si quisiera recalcar que el mayor reto de Asia es la manera de reaccionar ante una China cada vez más asertiva, el gobierno de este país ha hecho públicos sus planes de construir grandes represas en importantes ríos que fluyen hacia otras naciones. La decisión del Consejo de Estado de China de no prestar la menor atención a las inquietudes de los países que se encuentran aguas abajo y actuar de manera unilateral demuestra que el principal problema de Asia no es su capacidad de adaptarse al ascenso de China, sino persuadir a los gobernantes chinos de la necesidad de institucionalizar la cooperación con los países vecinos.

China se encuentra en el centro geográfico de Asia, compartiendo fronteras con 20 países: sin su participación será imposible crear un plan regional con reglas claras. ¿Cómo se puede hacer para que lo haga?

Este reto se vuelve más evidente que nunca en los ríos transfronterizos de Asia, donde China ha establecido una supremacía hídrica sin paralelos en el continente, al anexarse los nacimientos de los principales ríos internacionales (la meseta tibetana y Xinjiang) y emprender obras de ingeniería para alterar sus caudales mediante represas, embalses, presas, redes de irrigación y otras estructuras. China posee en su territorio más nacimientos de ríos transfronterizos que ninguna otra potencia y, después de haber construido más grandes represas que el conjunto de todos los demás países del planeta, ha hecho pasar el acento de su programa de construcción de estructuras hídricas desde la saturación de represas en sus ríos internos a hacerlo en ríos internacionales.

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