La révolution rurale silencieuse de la Chine

Lorsque le Congrès national du peuple (CNP) de Chine a clôturé sa réunion annuelle dernièrement, il a voté pour intégrer la protection des droits de l'homme et de la propriété privée dans la constitution. Mais d'autres changements majeurs intervenus dans les stratégies de développement de la Chine ont attiré une attention bien plus marquée.

Le dirigeant actuel de la Chine, un an après son accession au pouvoir, a critiqué " la poursuite acharnée de la croissance du PNB " au cours de la dernière décennie et a dévoilé une nouvelle approche envers la modernisation, caractérisée comme " équilibrée, axée sur l'homme et respectueuse de l'environnement ". Le changement de priorité, et la tendance des autres partis à l'ignorer, ne sont pas difficiles à comprendre.

Le monde est fasciné par le miracle économique de la Chine, mais il s'intéresse bien moins aux coûts liés au taux de croissance annuel de 8-9 % du pays au cours des 25 dernières années. Par exemple, la consommation énergétique de chaque unité de production industrielle chinoise correspond à environ le triple de la moyenne mondiale. Dans bien des régions, l'environnement a été dévasté de manière quasi irrémédiable.

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